Scientific name. Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. Subordinate taxa: Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. var. benadirianum (Chiov.) Verdc. Macrotyloma. Horse gram seeds (Indian name: Kulthi) Macrotyloma uniflorum, Organic Heirloom Untreated Seeds. For Growing Or Sprouting Horse Gram (Macrotyloma . Biflorus, horse gram, horse grain, kulthi bean, madras bean, madras gram, poor man’s pulse, dolic biflore, grain de cheval, kerdekorn, pferdebohne, pferdekorn.
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Click on images to enlarge. The two rows from left are cultivated types – the row on the right is a wild type. Twining, sub-erect annual with cylindrical, slightly hairy to tomentose stems, 30—60 cm tall in pure stands, or 60—90 cm with support framework.
Fact sheet – Macrotyloma uniflorum
Flowers yellow or greenish yellow, single or in short, sessile or subsessile, 2- to 4-flowered axillary racemes, calyx tomentose, standard oblong, 9— Pod shortly stipitate, slightly curved, smooth or tomentose, linear-oblong, 2.
Seed ovoid, 5—8 per pod, 4—6 —8 mm long, 3—5 mm broad, pale fawn, unilorum red, brown, unidlorum black sometimes with faint mottles univlorum with small, scattered black spots, or bothhilum central.
Usually grown as a pulse for livestock and human consumption, mostly as an intercrop with annual grains e. Has value as a pioneer legume or sometimes a regenerating annual in permanent nuiflorum. Can be used for deferred grazing or as a fodder crop for dry season feed. Adapted to a wide range of well-drained soils from sands and gravels to clay loams and heavy clays.
Prefers near neutral unirlorum, but will grow down to pH 5 or 5. African collections originate from areas with annual rainfall from — mm, and Indian collections, —2, mm, and the overall majority from —1, mm, usually with a high summer dominance.
Leaf disease can be a problem in higher rainfall areas. Very drought tolerant, but does not tolerate flooding or waterlogging. It is completely intolerant of frost, but usually seeds before the frosts and regenerates in the summer from seed. Short day and day neutral in flowering response.
May take as little as 40 days, but usually — days to reach maturity. If sown as a fast-developing pioneer, it provides useful early feed in a forage system. Green fodder can be cut as soon as 6 weeks after sowing.
However, unless allowed to seed, there is no chance of regeneration in the following year. Grows vigorously in summer, seeds early and then drops its leaves in autumn to early winter. It is best managed as a macrotylooma season feed reserve, with the high uniflorjm seed-in-pod remaining on the bush, and fallen leaf licked from the ground.
Similarly, inoculation is usually not essential, since, like M.
The latter produces black nodules, which are still effective. Normally drilled or broadcast into a well-prepared seedbed, but can establish with little ground disturbance. Sometimes sown with maize Zea maysso they mature together, the legume improving the quality of the maize residue.
Seed is sown in spring to early summer, 1—1. Unifloruk twining habit enables Macrktyloma. Heteropogon contortusPanicum maximum. Macroptilium atropurpureumStylosanthes scabra.
Relatively free of disease and pests. In more humid environments, powdery mildew Sphaerotheca fuliginea and a leaf spot Cercospora dolichi may cause damage as plants approach maturity.
Macrotyloma uniflorum – Useful Tropical Plants
In high rainfall conditions, another leaf spot Ascochyta sp. Other diseases include anthracnose Glomerella lindermuthianumrust Uromyces appendiculatumroot rot Pellicularia filamentosa and dry root rot Macrophomina phaseolina.
Seed yields can be reduced by pod rot during late season rains, pod borers, and rodents. Bean fly Ophiomyia AgromyzaMelanagromyza phaseoli: Diptera, Agromyzidae sometimes attacks young seedlings Subject to attack by a wide range of viruses: Yellow mosaic virus is one of the major constraints for its cultivation in peninsular India.
Low levels of hard seed reduce the amount of seed passing undigested through the grazing animal, and hence the potential for spread in this way.
Often not relished by cattle on first introduction, but then well eaten following a period of adjustment. Possibility of a toxic factor in untreated seed, broken down by heat.
Does not seem to adversely affect ruminants. Steers can gain 0. Flowers are self-fertile and cleistogamous, although evidence of some cross-pollination by insects. Seed yields vary markedly with growing conditions. The unifporum are indehiscent and retain the seed. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research40— Tropical Grasslands2716— London and New York.
Pasture Legumes and Grasses in Zambia. Kew Bulletin24— Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. Hooker’s icones plantarum38 Initially considered a potential dry season supplement macrotylomq low quality native pasture. Superseded by the advent of various Stylosanthes spp.
Seed is no longer commercially available. Promising accessions Country Details None reported. Click on images to enlarge Pods and seeds.
Young plants of cv. Leichhardt inset shows different ecotype.