The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .
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Without the generosity of these peo- ple, this project would never have become more than an idle curiosity. The following study seeks to demonstrate that passports and other documentary controls on movement and identification have been essential to states’ monopolization of the legitimate means of movement since the French Revolution, and that this process of monopolization has been a central feature of their development as states during that period.
The activities classically associated with the rise of modern states only became possible on a systematic basis if states were in a position successfully to embrace their populations for purposes of carrying out those activities. It was this version that was ulti- mately adopted as article 5 of the passport law of 1 February – 28 March Lemalliaud ‘s proposal was seconded by another Assembly representa- tive who noted that the nearby departement of Maine-et-Loire Anjou had already felt compelled to reestablish passport controls and that “substan- tial contingents of troops composed of brigands and those without an aveu are forming at the borders” of Brittany and Anjou.
Torpey No preview available – France had begun to take the necessary steps to distinguish clearly and effectively between natives and foreigners within its borders. Faithful to the commitments made in its name, [France] hastens to fulfill them with a generous exacti- tude. The landless poor would then have work and sustenance, and invenhion no reason for taking to the roads as they normally did in times of need.
Next, I argue that the processes involved in this monopolization force us to rethink tkrpey very nature of modern states as they have been portrayed by the dominant strands of sociological theories of the state. It was torley this period that the Gironde rose to prominence under the leadership of Brissot, Vergniaud, and others, and “leftist” measures found increasing resonance in the Legislative Assembly.
Dividing the two sides of the debate was the question whether one could limit the freedom of the deputies by denying them passports, on the one hand, and whether deputies should leave their posts in the country’s hour of need, particularly given that the foot-soldiers of the nation torpdy not be allowed to do so, on the other.
Moreover, they tended to be seen as a threat to the patrie, as would grad- ually come to be expected in any international conflict.
The revolution thus with- drew firmly from the prospect of untrammeled freedom of movement that had been heralded in the work of the Constituent Assembly. The asylum that [France] opens to foreigners will never be closed to the inhabitants of countries whose princes have forced us to attack them, and they will find in its womb a secure refuge.
In one of his few sustained treatments of formal institutional environ- ments, the irreplaceable essay on “total institutions” in Asylums, 21 Goffman shows that the effort to impose control in such environments begins with systematic attempts to annihilate the “identities” – the selves – of their inmates. At a time in which pub- lic support for scholarship is under sharp attack in the United States, I wish to make special mention of a fellowship from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the award of which I regarded as a particular honor.
Systems of registration, censuses, and the like – along with documents such as passports and identity cards that amount to mobile versions of the “files” states use to store knowledge about their subjects – have been crucial in states’ efforts to achieve these aims.
Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. At the top passpoort the cards were to appear the words hospitalite et surete and, if the person were from a country with which France was at peace, the word “fraternite.
In the interest of bureaucratic consistency, each department was to supply the lower authorities with a model of the pass- port to be used.
Toepey was an element of sophistry in this argument, of course, but the opponents of the passport law sensed that they were on the defensive.
John Torpey : The invention of the passport. Surveillance, Citizenship and the State
Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The study concentrates on the historical development of passport controls as a way of illuminating the institutionalization of the idea of the “nation-state” as a prospectively homogeneous ethnocultural unit, a project that necessarily entailed efforts to regulate people’s movements. Yet, as Richard Cobb has pointed out: This does not mean, however, as Torpey conveys p.
From the Emancipation of the peasantry to the end of the Napoleonic era. Finally, my deepest thanks to Caroline, who made it all worthwhile.
These petty restrictions were not too much to ask of true defenders of the greater liberties won by the revolution. Without descrip- tions les signalementsthis critic admonished, those who wished to slip out of the country would have had little difficulty doing so.
This ambi- guity was exacerbated by the fact that the Thermidorians held the municipality of Paris to have been engaged in a conspiratorial undertak- ing during the Terror, and would soon move to inventiln that body. The foreigner, increasingly defined exclusively in th rather than local terms, was perceived more and more ipso facto as a suspect.
A French translation of parts of Chapter 3 was published as “Le controle des passe- ports et la liberte de circulation: Those not so licensed were thus deprived of the freedom to employ violence against others. Much of the research for this book was carried out while I held ajean Monnet Fellowship at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy during Once I had seriously embarked on the project, two other people, Gerard Noiriel and Jane Caplan, lent their enthusiasm and provided shining examples of the kind of scholarship I wanted to produce.
Yet upon departure from the district they would have been required to have their passports visaed by the directory of the district or departement in which their municipality was situated. The niceties of bureaucratic rationalization aside, however, much of this preoccupation with the details of passport procedure was, as a prac- tical matter, little more than eyewash.
In particular, Tilly’s enumeration of invasions leaves unclear how tax- ation and conscription grew to depend decisively on mechanisms of surveillance such as censuses, household registration systems, passports internal and externaland other identity documents. While it may be difficult for states to control movement outside their own borders, this has scarcely kept them from trying to implement such controls, and they may be able to do so effectively mainly because of their capacity to distribute rewards and punishments at home when the traveler returns.
My invfntion of the term “embrace” derives from the German word erfassen, which means to “grasp” or “lay hold of in the sense of “register.