Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

Author: Nalkree Kagajind
Country: Uzbekistan
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Art
Published (Last): 25 July 2016
Pages: 66
PDF File Size: 8.19 Mb
ePub File Size: 6.17 Mb
ISBN: 746-2-81003-483-1
Downloads: 62508
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Galar

Recent studies provided working definitions of apathy that were operationalized into standardized diagnostic criteria. In a recent review, Habib summarized the scael clinical features of apathy which he termed “athymormia” after brain damage, and stressed the over-representation of basal ganglia lesions among these patients.

SAS – Starkstein Apathy Scale

These diagnostic criteria have been validated for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, but their validity in other neuropsychiatric conditions remains to be established. AD patients with apathy are more impaired in basic activities of daily living and their caregivers report significantly higher levels of distress as compared to AD patients without apathy Landes et al. A variety of psychoactive compounds were reported to improve apathy after focal brain damage, but most of these studies consist of single cases or small case series.

Stroke ; 24 Please review our privacy starkstein apathy scale.

There was a problem providing the content you requested

Int Psychogeriatr ; 12 Suppl 1: Behavioral problems in dementia: Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease, apathy is significantly associated with older age, the presence of depression, and more severe cognitive and functional deficits, and also predicts a faster cognitive and functional decline.

This would explain why some patients with orbito-frontal lesions who mostly show disinhibited behaviours, also feature a concomitant loss of motivation. Apathy is currently defined as diminished motivation as expressed in poor apzthy behaviours starkstei cognitions.

Apathy in Alzheimer’s disease. About two thirds of the AD patients with apathy were also depressed either major or minor depression.


Apaathy treatment studies suggested that anticholinesterase compounds may starkstein apathy scale apathy among patients with dementia. Possible starkstein apathy scale for dopaminergic agents following traumatic brain injury: Several instruments are now available to rate the severity of apathy.

Apathy is most frequently associated with depression and severe dementia. Lee wcale coworkers Lee et al. In a study that included patients with AD, Landes and coworkers diagnosed apathy based on a cut-off score on the Dementia Apathy Interview and Rating Landes et al.

Clinical information was obtained starksetin caregivers, who filled the Apathy Scale about the patient.

Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS)

The problem with this hypothesis is how to avoid the Cartesian dilemma of psychological states motivation and past or present emotional experiences producing a physical state action. A week, multicenter, open-label study. A recent double blind, placebo controlled study evaluated the sttarkstein of methylphenidate on diverse cognitive functions in a group of 24 patients who had moderate to severe head injuries Whyte et al.

Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale. Habib speculated that this cingulate circuit may mediate “the process of converting motivation into action”, and that apathy may result from the bilateral disruption at different levels of this circuit or from lesions stxrkstein limbic areas outside the striato-pallidal complex.

Arch Neurol ; Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale SAS is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. J Nerv Ment Dis ; 4: Clinical correlates and course of apathy in AD Most studies on apathy in AD have been cross-sectional, and all of them demonstrated a starksteib association between more severe apathy and more severe dementia. They hypothesized that disruption of an “emotional-affective” process may produce apathy due to the inability to associate affective and emotional signals with overt behaviour; disruption of the “cognitive” process may result from impairments on cognitive functions that are “needed to elaborate the plan of actions”; whereas the “auto-activation deficit” may result from “difficulties in activating thoughts or initiating the motor program necessary to complete the behaviour”.

Based on this diagnostic scheme, 46 of the patients with Alzheimer’s disease had apathy.


Starkstein and coworkers developed a item Apathy Scale Table IIwhich is an abridged and slightly modified version of Marin’s instrument Starkstein et al. Recent studies found that apathy in Alzheimer’s disease is significantly associated with older age, relatively more severe cognitive deficits, depression, and more severe impairments in starrkstein of daily living. Objective The authors examined the reliability, factor structure, and discriminant validity of the SAS in nondemented patients with early untreated PD.


Selegiline in the management of apathy following traumatic brain injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; Marin Marin et al. One of the main diagnostic dilemmas is how to separate apathy from depression.

The prevalence, clinical correlates and treatment of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease

A structured clinical interview and a specific set of diagnostic criteria to diagnose apathy in dementia have been recently validated. Our group and others have also reported a relatively high frequency of apathy among patients with stroke lesions, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease Burns et al.

Furthermore, patients with dementia and apathy have a significantly faster cognitive and functional decline than demented individuals without apathy. To examine whether apathy should be considered a mere symptom of depression in dementia, scake first examined whether the onset of depression during the follow-up period was associated with increasing apathy. The mechanism of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders is still unknown, but several studies suggest an important role for frontal lobe and basal ganglia dysfunction.

Author links open overlay panel Kenn Freddy Pedersen M. There are several valid and reliable scales to measure the severity of apathy in adults with neuropsychiatric disorders. About two thirds of the AD patients with apathy were also depressed either major or minor depression.